What sculpted the earth’s surface?

Platinum Group Anomalies

Most, if not all, large craters in North America are said to be the remains of asteroid impacts. In fact, it was an asteroid impact that is thought by consensus geologists to be the event that wiped-out the dinosaurs, although that idea is no longer as hard and true as it once was.

Archaeologists find platinum, sometimes associated with asteroids or comets, at these Clovis excavation sites. Credit: K. Cantner, AGI.

May 2, 2018

Where did the heavy elements on Earth come from?

Proving the asteroid theory is not easy, because rocks where the evidence is found cannot be accurately dated. The fossil record is also indeterminate when it comes to causal issues, was it a catastrophic event or a gradual decline in species? It appears that some marine species died out millions of years before the event.

According to an article in the science journal Nature, Platinum Group Element (PGE) anomalies are found in sedimentary deposits all over North America. No one is sure where the additional heavy elements came from, but there are several ideas proposed: 1) comet or meteorite “storms”; 2) debris from collisions in space; 3) volcanoes; 4) mantle plumes, etc. The time of the mostly platinum “enrichment” is thought to be the Younger Dryas Period between 12,900 and 11,600 years ago. Some of the elements are platinum, osmium, gold, ruthenium and copper.

Otherwise known as the Younger Dryas Cooling Event, it is when the Northern Hemisphere monsoon declined. How that period, called an Ice Age, began and ended is a mystery, although it is often trucked-out as an example of massive and rapid climate change. One of the reasons for the warming at the end of the Younger Dryas is thought to be the impact from a massive comet or a huge number of meteors.

There are many large craters in North America, and most of them look like they come from a similar time period. The Weaubleau-Osceola structure; the Decaturville and Crooked Creek, Missouri formations; along with the the Flynn Creek and Wells Creek, Tennessee craters might belong to an anomalous chain of craters stretching across the United States called the “38th parallel anomaly”. Most of them exhibit unusual features, such as flat floors, steep walls, and lightning-like patterns of trenches and gullies that extend from their centers. Although not in North America, the Kondyor Massif is a perfect illustration of the point.

Geologists speculate that tremendous shockwaves from the collisions caused earthquakes and dense, pulverized rock fallout all over the world. Modern theories about a post-war “nuclear winter are relevant to the dimming of sunlight and significant cooling trends from atmospheric dust. The questions no one is asking, however, is: “What if there was no rock?”

In an a previous Picture of the Day, Sudbury Basin in Canada was described. It is a crater more than 63 kilometers long, 31 kilometers wide, and 15 kilometers deep; the second largest crater on Earth. Ejecta from Sudbury was found more than 800 kilometers away near Lake Superior. The area around Sudbury is shattered into multi-megaton blocks that were pushed away and piled up along the crater rim. Some of the largest fragments were thrown over 100 kilometers in all directions. Gneiss deposits were fused into a glass-like compound that covered the floor of the crater and splashed up and over the crater rim. The molten glass inundated several hundred square kilometers of the surrounding terrain with a thick layer capping chaotic breccias. Platinum family minerals are found throughout the region, including sperrylite, froodite, michenerite and sudburyite. Some records indicate that 1600 million tons of nickel, copper, platinum and lead were extracted from Sudbury over the last 100 years.

There are so many anomalous formations in North America that it is impossible to count them all. Even the Great Lakes possess characteristics that could point to a electrical foundation: the gigantic bowl of hardened limestone in which they rest, for instance. In a gradual curve north of the Great Lakes are Lake Winnipeg, Lake of the Woods, Lake Athabasca, Great Slave Lake, Great Bear Lake, and many other smaller bodies of water. Near the largest of them are gold mines, lead mines, radium and uranium mines, along with mines producing platinum, silver and palladium. Unusual concentrations of heavy metals could mean that transmutation of local elements might have occurred because of the intensity of the electrical discharges. That idea has been suggested in these pages as the cause for hematite blueberries on Mars. Electric arcs transmuted silicon into iron. That same phenomenon could have created some of the strange conglomerations of minerals seen on Earth.

In an Electric Universe, asteroids are not a primary cause for anomalies on Earth. Instead, electric arc discharges are suggested as the sculptor of Earth terrain. Where those arcs came from cannot be determined at this late date. Were they from charged celestial bodies encroaching into the electric fields of Earth? Was it a plasma cloud from outside the Solar System? Was it a solar flare that charged-up Earth’s ionosphere? Those questions, whose answers can only be guessed at today, await further forensic details.

Stephen Smith

Platinum Group Anomalies

The Darkness is Accelerating

“Dark Energy”. Fractal by Stephen Smith.


Apr 30, 2018

What causes astronomers to think that space is expanding?

“The greatest mistake in my opinion, and the one we continually make, is to let the theory guide the model. After a ridiculously long time it has finally dawned on me that establishment scientists actually proceed on the belief that theories tell you what is true and not true!”
— Halton Arp (March 1927 – December 2013)

Most of the mass of the Milky Way, as well as that of other spiral galaxies, is in the central bulge, so if stars in the arms revolve because of gravity, they would slow down as they got farther from the center. Instead, stars in the Milky Way demonstrate a more-or-less constant velocity. This is known as a “flat rotation curve”, as a recent Picture of the Day pointed out, although astronomers have a difficult time deciding if galaxies are discrete “things” that rotate like solid disks, or if they are a collection of stars that revolve.

Recently, astronomers using the European Space Agency’s XMM-Newton space telescope reported that nearby galaxies appear to contain three times less luminous matter than expected, while the Milky Way  contains less than half of what was expected. Jiangtao Li of the University of Michigan said:

“This has long been a mystery, and scientists have spent a lot of effort searching for this missing matter.

Why is it not in galaxies — or is it there, but we are just not seeing it? If it’s not there, where is it? It is important we solve this puzzle, as it is one of the most uncertain parts of our models of both the early Universe and of how galaxies form.”

The Milky Way rotates much faster than visible matter alone can account for. This is a mystery that contradicts conventional theories about galaxy evolution. If astronomy were actually “science” and not speculation, “contradict” would mean “falsify”, and they would start over. They would consider other assumptions. That would throw a spanner in the works, however, undermining textbooks, discrediting published papers, and jeopardizing careers.

One alternative that is different from the gravity model is Dr. Anthony Peratt’s laboratory investigations. He demonstrated interacting Birkeland currents that rotate around each other at constant velocities, with plasma trails morphing into spiral “arms”. Plasma accumulated between the arms into a “bulge” that eventually swallowed the currents. At the grand scale, could this be the motive force for galactic rotation?

In 1998, Saul Perlmutter and Adam Riess of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Brian Schmidt from the Australian National University projects independently discovered what was later called “dark energy”, an indication that the expansion of the Universe was accelerating. Since it is based in Big Bang theory, the expansion of the Universe is challenged by Electric Universe concepts.

Electric Universe theory predicts that more stars will occur where there are greater flows of electric charge, which could also initiate a greater number of stellar explosions with anomalous luminosities and high redshifts. That would make highly charged, nearby objects undergoing electrical discharges look like remote, high redshift supernovae that are too bright for their distances. One can imagine the theoretical problems that would result from that misinterpretation.

Cosmologists made their first mistake when they ignored electricity as an active force. X-rays from ion excitation, a range of energy curves, and (sometimes) gamma-rays are properties of lightning bolts. Computer simulations demonstrate that plasma phenomena are scalable over several orders of magnitude.

“All of the ‘dark’ things in astronomy are artifacts of a crackpot cosmology. The ‘dark energy’ model of the universe demands that eventually all of the stars will disappear and there will be eternal darkness. In the words of Brian Schmidt, ‘The future for the universe appears very bleak.’ He confirms my portrayal of big bang cosmology as ‘hope less’.” — Wal Thornhill

Stephen Smith

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